Cervical Dystonia

Cervical dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis, is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions in the neck. These contractions cause the head to twist or turn involuntarily, resulting in abnormal postures and movements. Treatment options include medications, oral and injected, and therapies.

Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is a complex condition characterized by persistent pain that lasts longer than the usual course of acute illness or injury or more than 3 to 6 months, and which adversely affects an individual’s well-being. There are many causes of chronic pain, including arthritis, spine dysfunction, migraines, fibromyalgia, cancer, infections, and injuries that don’t heal properly. It can also occur without a clear cause. Chronic pain can affect any part of the body, and the severity of pain can vary from mild to severe. Chronic pain can lead to other problems, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, decreased appetite, and mood changes. Treatment usually involves a combination of medication and non-medication therapies aimed at managing pain and improving function. 


This is a chronic pain disorder that can cause widespread pain, fatigue, and tender points throughout the body. Fibromyalgia can also cause other symptoms, such as cognitive difficulties, headaches and sleep problems.

Lateral Epicondylitis

Also known as “tennis elbow”. It is characterized by pain and tenderness on the outer (lateral) part of the elbow. Despite its nickname, it is not limited to tennis players and can affect anyone who overuses their forearm and wrist. This condition occurs when the tendons that connect the forearm muscles to the lateral epicondyle (a bony bump on the outside of your elbow) become inflamed or have microscopic tears due to repetitive or strenuous activities. These activities can include playing racquet sports, typing, painting, or any action that requires frequent twisting or gripping motions. Treatment involves rest, medications, physical therapy, bracing and injections.

Medial Epicondylitis

Also known as “golfers elbow”. It is characterized by pain and inflammation in the tendons that connect the forearm to the elbow at the inner (medial) part of the elbow. Despite its nickname, it doesn’t only affect golfers and can occur with any repetitive activity or strain that involves the forearm muscles. In addition to pain on the inner part of the elbow symptoms can include Symptoms of medial epicondylitis include weakness in the hand or wrist and numbness or tingling in the fingers. Treatment involves rest, medications, physical therapy, bracing and injections.

Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Is a common condition that causes localized pain in the muscles, often characterized by tender areas or trigger points in the affected muscle.


Myopathy is a general term referring to diseases of the muscle tissues. The main symptom of a myopathy is muscle weakness, with or without pain, due to dysfunction in the muscle fiber. There are many different types of myopathies, with varying causes, such as genetic, inflammatory, metabolic, or endocrine. The diagnosis of myopathies often requires a combination of blood tests, genetic tests, electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction studies, and sometimes a muscle biopsy. The management of these conditions often involves a multidisciplinary team, including neurologists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and other specialists as needed. Treatment varies widely based on the specific type of myopathy and may involve medication, physical therapy, or supportive treatments.

Patellofemoral Syndrome

Also known as “runner’s knee”, refers to pain in the front of the knee and around the kneecap, or patella. It’s common in people who participate in sports, particularly females and young adults, but it can happen to anyone. The cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome is typically attributed to the repetitive stress placed on the knee joint, particularly during activities like running, squatting, and climbing stairs. It’s also linked to improper kneecap alignment and muscular imbalances or weaknesses, which can cause the kneecap to shift out of place when the leg is in motion. Symptoms include pain in the front of the knee, pain when sitting for long periods with bent knees, pain associated with activities like running, jumping, or going up and down stairs, and a cracking or popping sound in the knee when climbing stairs or standing up from a seated position. Treatment includes rest, medications, physical therapy and bracing.

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

A condition that occurs when the muscles and connective tissues of the pelvic floor become weak, tight, or uncoordinated. This dysfunction can lead to various symptoms, including urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, pelvic pain, and difficulties with bowel movements or sexual function. Causes may include pregnancy and childbirth, obesity, aging, surgery, or injury. Treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction typically involves physical therapy, biofeedback, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, medication or surgery. The goal of treatment is to strengthen and retrain the pelvic floor muscles to improve function and alleviate symptoms.

Plantar fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a common condition that causes pain in the heel. The pain is due to inflammation, irritation, or damage to the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that runs along the bottom of your foot and connects your heel bone to your toes. The primary symptom of plantar fasciitis is sharp, stabbing pain in the bottom of your foot near the heel that is normally worst in the morning, although it can be triggered by long periods of standing or when you stand up after sitting. The pain is usually worse after exercise, not during it. The condition usually develops without a specific, identifiable reason. Treatment includes physical therapy, bracing, medications, injections, and sometimes surgery.

Pregnancy-Related Pain

Many women experience body changes during pregnancy that include stretching and thickening of the ligaments, increased load on the pelvic floor, a decline in posture, and body aches and pains. The most common complaints include back pain, abdominal pain, pelvic pain, leg pain. It’s important for pregnant women to communicate with their healthcare provider about any pain or discomfort they’re experiencing. While some discomfort is normal, severe, persistent, or sudden pain can indicate a serious condition that needs immediate medical attention. Treatment options can range from lifestyle changes, exercises, and relaxation techniques to medication.

Pre/Post-Op Care

Inevitably some people require surgery. Our job as Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation providers is to prepare your body appropriately to maximize your post-operative condition. This includes multiple treatment modalities pre-operatively and continued oversight post-operatively. Pre-surgical rehabilitation has been known to benefit many surgical patients. The goal of pre-surgical PT is to build a solid muscular foundation around the problem area and preemptively instill a regular stretching/exercise routine in the patient.

Starting a pre-hab program early will improve post-surgery recovery by reducing muscle atrophy and delayed onset muscle soreness. After your post-surgical recovery procedures have been completed, a comprehensive physical therapy program is paramount to regaining lost functionality. Although pain relief medications may be prescribed by your doctor, physical therapy relieves pain long-term by reversing muscle atrophy, regaining flexibility and mobility, and enforcing proper movement techniques.

Rotator Cuff Disorder

Rotator cuff disorders are a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the shoulder. The rotator cuff is a collection of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint and help in its movement and stabilization. These disorders can include inflammation (like tendinitis), bursitis, rotator cuff tears, and impingement syndrome. They are typically caused by a combination of normal wear and tear and repetitive overhead motions. Symptoms include shoulder pain (often worse at night), weakness in the arm, and difficulty with activities that involve reaching overhead or behind the back. Treatment includes rest, physical therapy, medications, injections, and sometimes surgery.


Spasticity is a condition characterized by involuntary muscle stiffness, tightness, and spasms. It is often caused by damage or dysfunction in the central nervous system, particularly the brain or spinal cord. Spasticity is commonly associated with conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Treatment options include medications, oral and injected, bracing and therapies.

Sports Injuries

Anything that results in pain while performing physical activity can be considered a sports injury. They can happen to any part of the body and can vary in severity. Common types include sprains, strains, fractures, dislocations, overuse injuries, and concussions. Symptoms of sports injuries can vary based on the type and severity of the injury but can include pain, swelling, bruising, and limited range of motion.


This is inflammation of the tendons, which are the thick cords that connect muscles to bones. Tendinitis can cause pain, stiffness, and weakness in the affected joint. The most common areas of tendonitis include achilles, patellar, rotator cuff, and lateral and medial epicondylitis.